History Functions prior to Leibniz Historically, some mathematicians can be regarded as having foreseen and come close to a modern formulation of the concept of function. Among them is Oresme — In his theory, some general ideas about independent and dependent variable quantities seem to be present. For this type of function, one can talk about limits and derivatives; both are measurements of the output or the change in the output as it depends on the input or the change in the input.
At a third level how are we to identify the part of speech on the basis of decisions at level 6, which will detennine the syntax of the sentence? Again, once individual words have been isolated, how are we to translate them? Do we presuppose a northwest Semitic basis which will involve Aramaic, Phoenician and Hebrew cognates?
The bulk of the material treated in this anthology is in poetry. What weight then are we to give to prosodic factors, which have a bearing on syntax, the grouping of words, the sense of words and so on, and in what degree is this process to be carried on in reverse?
Though all scholars fight for their integrity and independence, there is nevertheless a convention that previous scholarship is taken into account.
Thus a dialectic is established between all previous work and each new contribution, and the proponent of a new view is obliged by academic etiquette to justify departure from agreed principles or results that have achieved a consensus.
The range of views entertained by one's colleagues, past and present, can be quite startling, as perusal of some of the footnotes will show. How is one to sift the claims and counter-claims?
Should one be bold even bloody, bold and resolute! New discoveries continually tum up new evidence which has to be taken into account, on the linguistic, literary and archaeological levels, and the discipline of Ugaritic studies itself is in a dialectical relationship with Assyriology, Hittitology, Egyptology, Aegean and biblical studies.
Some publications appearing during Academic writing thesis statement development by formula u of manitoba preparation of this study have involved modifying my comments, changing my position and at times altering the translation. Without wishing to labour the point, I think I have shown that we have gone beyond art, with at least eleven variables!
To all the disciplinary skills required, we have to add the new translator's own intuition, and in any work that pretends to serious scholarship, a balance between the minutiae of all the philological and other technical issues outlined Introduction 17 above, and a concern for readable English.
That makes thirteen variables! And no doubt the list could be extended. Too many translations are the work of specialists who in straining to be faithful to the ancient original, torture the language of translation most painfully.
This is not a charge I would lay against any of the main contributions to Ugaritic translation work which are cited extensively in the following pages, though some curious infelicities have occasionally arisen.
But the idiomatic and stylistic demands of two languages from different families can frequently be hard to reconcile. At any level of operation each of these factors is having a direct influence on all the other factors, and at times it is a matter of juggling with so many balls in the air at once that it is a daunting task indeed to dare to pronounce anything new, and yet one hesitates to follow the consensus.
Intuition remains the final arbiter. These compositions, apart from the sacrificial lists, are written in verse. Many of the technicalities of Ugaritic prosody still elude scholars, but the most striking feature is also the one most familiar to readers of the Hebrew Bible: In translation it is impossible to recapture the subtleties of style which use the possibilities of traditional fonns such as these.
Alliteration is used to great effect, word-order is very fluid not quite as confusing as Horace and is deliberately used to achieve chiastic patterns, or to reserve a key word for use as a climax. While scholars frequently have great difficulty deciding which of several cognate words is being used in a given context, it is often evident that the poets are deliberately punning, or playing on phonetic or semantic associations.
One of the features of the northwest Semitic language group, to which Ugaritic belongs along with Hebrew, Aramaic, Phoenician, etc. The lack of vowels in Ugaritic, apart from those attached to the guttural aleph, constitutes a problem for the translator. Thus, taking the lexical element mlk as an example meaning as a noun 'king' and as a verb 'rule'the simple fonn mlk may be translated, according to context, as 'to rule' infinitive'rule!
The form mlkt allows even greater variety: As a verb it means 'I rule', 'you rule', 'she rules' all singular'they both rule' feminine dualall indicative 'qatala' form.
So these two forms may be translated in thirteen different ways. Another example is the form I, which is generally prefixed to nouns and verbs, and may be translated as 'to' or 'from' opposites'for' or 'concerning' all attached to a noun'indeed' or 'not' opposites, attached to a verbor '0' vocativethat is seven meanings for one form, some mutually antonymous.
I speak of 'form' rather than 'word', because while at times one word may have various meanings polysemyat others we undoubtedly have different words which look the same homonymyand which mayor may not have sounded the same homophony.Back A rubric is a set of criteria required for an assignment accompanied by various levels of performance.
As the instructor, you simply select the comments on the rubric that match the submission (adding your own comments at your discretion).
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