Suggested Further Reading 1. Biography In a interview with Margaret Whitford, Luce Irigaray specifically says that she does not like to be asked personal questions. She does not want opinions about her everyday life to interfere with interpretations of her ideas.
The year was one of the most tumultuous in modern Greek history. Following the First World War, lands granted to Greece at the expense of the Ottoman Empire by the victorious Entente powers were being claimed militarily by Turkish nationalists.
As a result, Castoriadis spent his youth in Athens where he discovered philosophy at the age of twelve or thirteen. He engaged in communist youth activities while in high school and later studied economics, political science, and law while resisting the Axis occupation of Greece during Second World War.
His Trotskyist opposition group distanced itself from the pro-Stalinist opposition. In he won and accepted a scholarship to write a philosophy dissertation at the Sorbonne in Paris, thus starting a wholly new stage in his life.
In Paris Castoriadis planned to write his dissertation on the impossibility of a closed, rationalist philosophical system. This plan took second stage, however, to his critical-political activities. By Castoriadis developed his own criticism of the Soviets who, he argued, had only created a new brand of exploitation in Russia, i.
Discovering he shared similar views with recent acquaintance Claude Lefort, the two began to distance themselves altogether from the Trotskyist goal of party rule.
Castoriadis began two major vocations in First, he and Lefort co-founded the journal and political group Socialisme ou Barbarie Socialism or Barbarism. They focused on criticizing both Soviet bureaucracy and capitalism and on developing ideas for other possible organizations of society.
On the one hand, the traditional questions Marx raised about workers and social organization would remain important, while on the other hand any commitment to specific Marxist positions would remain conditional.
He would remain there untilanalyzing the short- and medium-term economic status of developed nations. His work with OEEC not only allowed him an income and the possibility of remaining in France until his eventual nationalization, but it also permitted him great insights into the economies of capitalist countries and into the functioning of a major bureaucratic organization.
Contemporary society, he argued, is split between a stratum of managers who direct workers, and a stratum of workers obedient to managers. Workers pass real-world information up to the managers; but they must then carry out the often nonsensical orders that are passed back down.
For Castoriadis, in both Western and so-called "communist" countries i. Such a managerial apparatus, argued Castoriadis, leads to inefficiency, waste, and unnecessary conflict between aloof managers and servile workers. The domination of society by the managerial apparatus can only be surpassed, argued Castoriadis, when workers take responsibility for organizing themselves.
They should form workers councils consisting of conditionally elected members.
Those members, in a strict reversal of the bureaucratic managerial model, should convene frequently not in order to make decisions for workers but in order to express the decisions of the workers. They should then convey important information back to the workers for the purpose of helping workers make their own decisions.
Rather, it helps convey information to workers for their purposes. While Castoriadis did support a centralized institution, or assembly of councils, capable of making rapid decisions when needed, such decisions, he argued, would be at all times reversible by the workers and their councils.Summaries and Reviews of Kevin MacDonald's Books on Judaism.
A People that Shall Dwell Alone: Judaism as a Group Evolutionary Strategy: Summary, Reviews, Ordering information Separation and Its Discontents: Toward an Evolutionary Theory of Anti-Semitism: Summary, Reviews, Ordering information The Culture of Critique: An .
Luce Irigaray (?—) Luce Irigaray is a prominent author in contemporary French feminism and Continental plombier-nemours.com is an interdisciplinary thinker who works between philosophy, psychoanalysis, and linguistics. I. Summary of A People that Shall Dwell Alone: Judaism as a Group Evolutionary Strategy, with Diaspora Peoples.
Lincoln, NE: iUniverse, Originally published in by Praeger Publishers.
Chapter 1 develops the basic theoretical perspective of the book, including especially the idea of a group evolutionary strategy. The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus.
Link to College of Arts and Letters Programs Anthropology. Undergraduate Courses/link to graduate courses Cultural Difference in a Globalized Society (ANT . MORE ON ALFRED ADLER: (When source is known, credit will be given.) Development of Faulty Lifestyles: due to three faulty childhood conditions: Physical Inferiority: Sometimes can lead to healthy compensation, but sometimes leads to .