Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources. Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
Traditionally known as the promotional element of the four Ps of marketing product, place, price, and promotionthe primary goal of marketing communication is to reach a defined audience to affect its behavior by informing, persuading, and reminding.
Marketing communication acquires new customers for brands by building awareness and encouraging trial. Marketing communication also maintains a brand's current customer base by reinforcing their purchase behavior by providing additional information about the brand's benefits.
A secondary goal of marketing communication is building and reinforcing relationships with customers, prospects, retailers, and other important stakeholders. Successful marketing communication relies on a combination of options called the endorsement examples business plans mix.
These options include advertising, sales promotion, public relations, direct marketing, and personal selling. The Internet has also become a powerful tool for reaching certain important audiences. The role each element takes in a marketing communication program relies in part on whether a company employs a push strategy or a pull strategy.
A pull strategy relies more on consumer demand than personal selling for the product to travel from the manufacturer to the end user.
The demand generated by advertising, public relations, and sales promotion "pulls" the good or service through the channels of distribution. A push strategy, on the other hand, emphasizes personal selling to push the product through these channels. Figure 1 Elements of Marketing Communication For marketing communication to be successful, however, sound management decisions must be made in the other three areas of the marketing mix: The best endorsement examples business plans cannot overcome poor product quality, inordinately high prices, or insufficient retail distribution.
Likewise, successful marketing communication relies on sound management decisions regarding the coordination of the various elements of the promotional mix.
To this end, a new way of viewing marketing communication emerged in the s. Called integrated marketing communication, this perspective seeks to orchestrate the use of all forms of the promotional mix to reach customers at different levels in new and better ways.
Marketers began to realize that advertising, public relations, and sales were often at odds regarding responsibilities, budgets, management input and myriad other decisions affecting the successful marketing of a brand. Executives in each area competed with the others for resources and a voice in decision making.
The outcome was inconsistent promotional efforts, wasted money, counterproductive management decisions, and, perhaps worst of all, confusion among consumers.
Secondly, the marketing perspective itself began to shift from being market oriented to market driven. Marketing communication was traditionally viewed as an inside-out way of presenting the company's messages.
Advertising was the dominant element in the promotional mix because the mass media could effectively deliver a sales message to a mass audience.
But then the mass market began to fragment. Consumers became better educated and more skeptical about advertising. A variety of sources, both controlled by the marketer and uncontrolled, became important to consumers. News reports, word-of-mouth, experts' opinions, and financial reports were just some of the "brand contacts" consumers began to use to learn about and form attitudes and opinions about a brand or company, or make purchase decisions.
Advertising began to lose some of its luster in terms of its ability to deliver huge homogeneous audiences. Companies began to seek new ways to coordinate the multiplicity of product and company messages being issued and used by consumers and others.
Thus, two ideas permeate integrated marketing communication: Rather than the traditional inside-out view, IMC is seen as an outside-in perspective.
Customers are viewed not as targets but as partners in an ongoing relationship. Customers, prospects, and others encounter the brand and company through a host of sources and create from these various contacts ideas about the brand and company.
By knowing the media habits and lifestyles of important consumer segments, marketers can tailor messages through media that are most likely to reach these segments at times when these segments are most likely to be receptive to these messages, thus optimizing the marketing communication effort.
Ideally, IMC is implemented by developing comprehensive databases on customers and prospects, segmenting these current and potential customers into groups with certain common awareness levels, predispositions, and behaviors, and developing messages and media strategies that guide the communication tactics to meet marketing objectives.
In doing this, IMC builds and reinforces mutually profitable relationships with customers and other important stakeholders and generates synergy by coordinating all elements in the promotional mix into a program that possesses clarity, consistency, and maximum impact.
Practitioners and academics alike, however, have noted the difficulty of effectively implementing IMC. Defining exactly what IMC is has been difficult. For example, merely coordinating messages so that speaking "with one clear voice" in all promotional efforts does not fully capture the meaning of IMC.Endorsed Drinking Water Source Protection Plans.
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