See Article History Alternative Title: Gustav was the son of a Swedish senator and of a noble family whose members had played a prominent part in the factious aristocratic politics of 15th-century Scandinavia. His family was also connected by marriage with the family of Sturewhich had supplied Sweden with three regents. Gustav fought in the army of Sten Sture the Younger against Christian II of Denmark in —18 and was one of the hostages sent by Sten to Christian in as part of the terms of an armistice.
During the Protestant Reformation he adopted Lutheranism as the state religion. Abandoning the tradition of electing a king, he established a hereditary monarchy that resulted in a Vasa dynasty line of rulers from the same family.
Fights bravely in battle Gustav was born in Uppland, Sweden, around He was the eldest son of Erik Johansson Vasa, lord of Rydboholm, who was a knight nobleman soldier and councilor of state.
He took the throne at age twenty-seven, during a tumultuous period in Swedish history. The crisis dated back towhen Sweden, Denmark, and Norway were politically united by the Union of Kalmar. Under this arrangement the aristocracies nobility, or upper class of these countries, which shared similar cultures and languages, agreed to elect their kings.
They took this step to fight off the efforts of German princes to gain influence over them. The Union frequently broke down throughout the fifteenth century, however, and it came to an end in the early sixteenth century as a result of conflict between the Danish king Christian II —; ruled Sweden —23 and the Swedish popular leader Sten Sture called the Younger; c.
Sten Sture took the title of regent of Sweden and was virtually an independent monarch, or ruler, but he still ruled on behalf of Christian II of Denmark. Like most Renaissance princes, Christian was eager to strengthen his power.
He isolated Sten Sture diplomatically and then attacked Sweden directly in His pretext was that he had come to rescue Gustav Trolle —the archbishop of Uppsala in Sweden, who believed Sten Sture was trying to diminish the rights and privileges of the Gustav vasa and the reformation Catholic Church.
In the treaty that followed this conflict, the victorious Sten Sture handed over young Gustav to the Danish king as a pledge of his good intentions.
Christian II took Gustav back to a mild form of captivity in Denmark. In Christian convinced Pope Leo X —; reigned —21 to excommunicate expel from the church Sten Sture and members of the Swedish Estates for their insulting behavior toward Archbishop Trolle.
Christian renewed his attack, this time defeating Swedish forces at the Battle of Lake Asunden. Sten Sture was killed in the fighting. Christian then seized Stockholm, the capital of Sweden. On November 8,he presided over the "Bloodbath of Stockholm," in which his Danish soldiers chopped off the heads of nearly one hundred prominent Swedes who had supported Sten Sture.
The massacre continued in the Swedish provinces in the weeks that followed. Gustav, therefore, had a powerful motive for taking up the fight against the Danes. Advancing on Stockholm, Gustav met the surviving Swedish aristocrats who appointed him regent one who governs in the place of an official ruler.
At first the aristocrats thought they could use Gustav to their advantage, but they gradually recognized his skills as a genuine leader and his determination not to be manipulated.
They rebelled in The determined Gustav defeated the rebels at their stronghold, the castle of Kalmar, in In the years that followed, the new kings of Denmark and Sweden found other common points of interest, despite remaining tensions from the war that had broken the Union of Kalmar.
Thus he began trade negotiations with Holland and signed a trading agreement with Prussia in As a result, companies of merchants made agreements that guaranteed mutual protection, exclusive trading rights, and trade monopolies domination without competition whenever possible.
Implementing these agreements, the merchants began building towns that were closer together. At first the league was controlled by a dozen or so German towns, known as Hansa, in the Baltic and Rhineland regions. Originally "hansa" referred to an association of warriors, but the term soon denoted a tax imposed on foreign merchants.
Gradually, the word came to mean a group of merchants in a particular city who were engaged in trade with foreign lands. Finally the German "Hansa" signified a vast community of urban merchants who did business in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea.
Three stages marked the expansion of the Hanseatic League: It was initiated during the period to ; it reached its height in the years to ; and its influence gradually decreased during the two centuries from to Dismantles Catholic Church For Gustav, as for many other rulers seeking to enlarge their power, the Protestant Reformation a movement to reform the Roman Catholic Church was an irresistible temptation.
Like every other part of Europe, Sweden had long been subject to intervention and taxation from the pope.
After the reformation, a full translation was published in –41, called the Gustav Vasa Bible. However, knowledge of Greek and Hebrew among Swedish clergymen was not sufficient for a translation from the original sources; instead the work followed the German translation by Martin Luther in Successor: Eric XIV. Gustav's reign was marked by internal political and religious reforms, including the Protestant Reformation, where he converted to Protestantism and seize Catholic Church property and wealth, and unification of the provinces. At the death of Gustav in , he was succeeded by his oldest son Eric. The rise of the Reformation in Sweden came as a result of politics rather than religious conviction of Gustav. Later on, it brought opportunities and challenges that added to the task ahead for King Gustav.
A monarch, therefore, could benefit from gaining control over church affairs and properties. Gustav was not a rich man, and he had pressing debts from the recent war of independence, which he could not pay from the small revenues of his estates.
At that time monarchs funded wars themselves. It also owned estates, castles, and other forms of wealth in abundance. Gustav was determined to lay his hands on this wealth. Gustav realized he could gain control over the church by supporting Protestant reform, which had been initiated by the German priest Martin Luther —; see entry.At the time of the Reformation, Finland was part of the Swedish Empire under the rule of King Gustav Vasa.
(His kingdom is represented by the dark green in the map above.) Under King Vasa, the church became a “royal” institution. King Vasa was sympathetic to Lutheranism, if not by conviction then for political reasons. Gustav I Vasa, king of independent Sweden (–60) after the Scandinavian union of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark had broken up, wished to eliminate the extensive economic power of the Roman Catholic church in Sweden.
He was aided in introducing the Reformation in Sweden by his. After the reformation, a full translation was published in –41, called the Gustav Vasa Bible. However, knowledge of Greek and Hebrew among Swedish clergymen was not sufficient for a translation from the original sources; instead the work followed the German translation by Martin Luther in Successor: Eric XIV.
The Protestant reformation in Sweden is generally regarded as having begun in during the reign of King Gustav I of Sweden, but the process was slow and not definitely ended until the Uppsala Synod of and the following War against Sigismund, with an attempt of counter-reformation during the reign of John III (–).
May 12, · Gustav Eriksson, a son of Cecilia Månsdotter Eka and Erik Johansson Vasa, was probably born in The birth most likely took place in Rydboholm Castle, northeast of Stockholm, the manor house of the father, Erik. Sweden - The early Vasa kings (–): After Gustav I Vasa was elected to the throne in , he began to restore the power of the Swedish king and to organize a central administration under his .