Back in the old days, my tutorial partner and I were given a simple essay title: My tutorial partner wrote an exemplary essay which explored as far as I can remember every aspect of Wuthering Heights.
Primarily a movement in art and literature, it claimed to represent common people and their everyday circumstances based on accurate observation. Realism challenged centuries of tradition, when the highest art aspired to idealized pictorial forms and heroic subjects.
The leader of artistic realism was the French painter Gustave Courbet Its advent revolutionized the history of art, leading to impressionism. In literature, various writers represented realism, from Gustave Flaubert to Henry James Unlike in art, literary realism was rarely self-conscious or polemical.
The movement realism must be distinguished from the generic term realism —the latter an aspect of much art and literature throughout time.
In its general meaning, the word can refer to an optical or descriptive realism, in which forms or details appear to be drawn from life or produce an illusion of reality. In art, this type of realism is an ingredient in the high classicism of the Greek age of the Parthenon, in Roman portraiture, in certain Renaissance and Baroque styles, in Pre-Raphaelitism, and in photorealism, among many others.
Indeed, in literature, prose generally developed as a realist genre, as opposed to epic or lyric poetry. In theater, realism was associated primarily with comedy, whereas tragedy was considered more ideal.
Following a related hierarchy, realism in art developed in opposition to academic classicism, which looked back to antiquity and the conventions of the French classical theater of Pierre Corneille and Jean Racine for its idealist forms. The realism movement was a response to two interrelated factors.
The history of art and literature was developed under the influence of different intellectual movement, the most prominent and important of which are Romanticism and Realism. Romanticism was a complex artistic, literary and intellectual movement of 18thth century that appeared in Europe and was. As artistic movements, both Romanticism and Realism spread throughout literary forms across the United States, Britain and much of Europe. While Romanticism refers to a single period in literature, Realism can refer to a specific era as well as a pattern of style that transcends a single time period. Oct 17, · Realism, which followed Romanticism, returned the focus of the arts and literature to more concrete matters, and tended to glorify real individuals, work, and social justice. These two literary terms of art are part of a larger pattern of cultural history in the western world.
On the one hand, there was an increasing demand for rational and eventually scientific empiricism, which since the Enlightenment had been regarded as intellectually and socially progressive.
The invention of photography inwhich introduced a new standard for optical realism, can be considered in the light of the same spirit, for there would otherwise have been no incentive or use for it. Second, the same rationalism encouraged the rights of the individual against both coercive political regimes and their art academies.
It followed romanticism, which was already encouraging artistic freedom and self-expression, with artists looking to nature as their source.
In his Realist ManifestoCourbet stated his aim as: Linking a faithful portrayal of his times with artistic independence from teachings based on imitations of classical arthe made both elements the basis for the movement of which he became the undisputed leader.
First was the Barbizon school of landscape painters, who studied people and places from a recognizable countryside, usually near Paris. Second was the recent popularity in literature and art of rural and provincial life. In addition, simple, often crude folk art and poetry were admired as naive expressions of popular culture and the working class.
Against their rugged landscape, some thirty odd friends and neighbors gathered at the open grave of a respected citizen.
Combined with their ostensible politics, the lower-class content and unrefined surfaces of his paintings caused a scandal. In Courbet challenged authority in a solo exhibition outside the grounds of the Universal Exposition. The purpose of this much-interpreted painting was a declaration of both artistic freedom and solidarity with his own community.
Similar scandals shook the realm of literature. Earlier in the nineteenth century, Stendhal Henri Beyle, began the study of contemporary manners as a way to expose hypocrisy. In and respectively, Flaubert and the poet Charles Baudelaire were brought to trial for offending public morality. A decade later, Zola considered his own novels analytic.
Zola wrote that this picture, drawn from modern life, was sincerely observed by a dispassionate artist whose sole interest was to observe forms, colors, light, and shade.A movement in literature, music, and painting in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
Romanticism has often been called a rebellion against an overemphasis on reason in the arts. Romanticism (also the Romantic era or the Romantic period) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from to (Art Terms) (often capital) the theory, practice, and style of the romantic art, music, and literature of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, usually opposed to classicism 3.
(Classical Music) (often capital) the theory, practice, and style of the romantic art, music, and literature of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, usually.
Realism in art essentially refers to composition constructed as plainly and without interpretation as possible. The movement is generally noted to have originated from France around the s.
Artists sought to resist the more romantic notions represented in art . Romanticism vs Realism RealismArtistic movements in the 19th century were direct reactions towards (or against) political and social situations during the time. Romanticism was a movement against the ideas of the Enlightenment that had been ingrained into European people since the early s.
Romanticism first came about in the 18th century and it was mostly used for art and literature. The actual word “romanticism” was created in Britain in the s.
People like Victor Hugo, William Wordsworth, and Percy Bysshe Shelley had big impacts on this style of art.